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Plurinational and Intercultural Constitutionalisms from a Sumak Kawsay Perspective: From Oral Expression to Written Word and Lessons for Development

Researcher name: Raúl Llasag Fernández

The proposal for the re-foundation of State in Ecuador and Bolivia, accomplished by the demand for a participatory Constituent Assembly that would approve a plurinational and intercultural Constitution, came from historically invisibilized collectives, and more specifically from the life- systems of indigenous people who were localized and invisibilized by ‘colonisation’ and ‘independence’ processes, as well as from their reaction to a liberal-conservative, neo-colonial, capitalist, neo-extractivist and patriarchal constitutionalism. This project addresses the question of plurinational and intercultural constitutionalisms in Latin America, and particularly those from Ecuador and Bolivia, constituting proposals that were developed from the life-systems of indigenous collectives and that present themselves as alternatives to western modern constitutionalism and development. In order to answer this question, it analyses plurinational and intercultural constitutionalism from the perspective of one of the aforementioned life-systems – sumak kawsay – and  from social and indigenous movements, hence visibilizing the historically invisibilized sectors with the aid of an Epistemology of the South that works in dialogue with other knowledges and life-systems.

Keywords: Plurinational and Intercultural Constitutionalism, Intercultural Translation, Inter-Relationality, Epistemologies of the South, Qualitative Participatory-Experiential Methodology
Countries of reference: Ecuador, Bolivia